Notes on Ricardo’s Principles (21) – 価値 20

中湖 康太



「機械や耐久性資本が導入される前の経済社会の初期の段階では、同額の資本によって生産される商品の価値はほぼ等しく、又は、労働投入量の多寡に比例して商品価値が変化した。 しかし、高価な耐久性資本が導入された後は、同額の資本で生産されたとしても、商品の価値は、著しく異なることになった。労働投入量の多寡が、相対的価値に影響を与えることは変わらないにしても、それに加えて、もう1つの要素、つまり、賃金や利益の増減が、相対価値に影響を与えるようになった。£5000で販売される商品が、£10,000で販売される他の商品と同額の資本で生産されたとすると、それらの製造業者の利益は同じになる。しかし、それらの商品の価格が、仮に利益率の増減に従って変化しないとすると利益は異なることになる。

It will be seen then, that in the early stages of society, before much machinery or durable capital is used, the commodities produced by equal capitals will be nearly of equal value, and will rise or fall only relatively to each other on account of more or less labor being required for their production; but after the introduction of these expensive and durable instruments, the commodities produced by the employment of equal capitals will be of very unequal value, and although they will still be liable to rise or fall relatively to each other, as more or less labor becomes necessary to their production, they will be subject to another, though a minor variation, also from the rise or fall of wages and profits. Since goods which sell for £5000 may be the produce of a capital equal in amount to that from which are produced other goods which sell for £10,000, the profits on their manufacture will be the same; but those profits would be unequal if the prices of the goods did not vary with a rise or fall in the rate of profits.




It appears, too, that in proportion to the durability of capital employed in any kind of production the relative prices of those commodities on which such durable capital is employed will vary inversely as wages; they will fall as wages rise, and rise as wages fall; and, on the contrary, those which are produced chiefly by labor with less fixed capital, or with fixed capital of a less durable character than the medium in which price is estimated, will rise as wages rise, and fall as wages fall.


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